Abstract: In Ancient Egypt honey bees seemed to have been of great significance during all periods – as decoration or motif in various contexts as well as icon within the religious and mythological sphere. In addition to that, bees also seemed to have been devoted as a symbol of the royal status and were applied in correlation with high-ranking officials. The practical use of bee products like wax and honey (apart from consumption) ranged from diverse applications within the fields of cosmetology or medical therapy to the utilization as an indispensable adjuvant for the mummification process.
Zusammenfassung: Im Alten Ägypten schienen Honigbienen durchweg von großer Bedeutung gewesen zu sein – als Dekoration oder Motiv in unterschiedlichen Kontexten sowie als Symbol und Ikone im religiösen und mythologischen Bereich. Darüber hinaus scheinen Bienen als Zeichen des königlichen Status zu dienen und wurden auch im Zusammenhang mit hochrangigen Beamten genutzt. Die praktische Verwendung von Bienenprodukten wie Wachs und Honig (abgesehen vom Verzehr) reichte von diversen Anwendungen im Bereich der Kosmetik oder bei Heilverfahren bis hin zur Verwendung als unverzichtbares Hilfsmittel für den Mumifizierungsprozess.
Egyptians may well have gathered the honey of
wild bees in the prehistoric period. As early as the first dynasty, the rare
inscriptions conserved show us that the canonical titles of the Pharaoh mention
“he who belongs to the sedge and the bee” (nesout-bity),
that is, the symbols respectively of Upper and Lower Egypt. Beekeeping is then
attested in the Old Kingdom: a bas-relief of the funerary temple of the Pharaoh
Nyuserre in Abusir (Fifth Dynasty, around 2500 BCE) represents peasants busying
themselves around beehives. A royal collar found at Saqqara and belonging to
Queen Hetepheres, the mother of Khufu (Cheops), has a handsome bee décor. Much
later in the New Kingdom (1580-1054 BCE), several beekeeping motifs are to be
found in the tombs of high-ranking civil officers, as in that of the Vizier Rekhmire
in Thebes showing honey being taken from the hive, as well as filling and
sealing jars of honey.
Later still, a bas-relief from the Saite period
of the 26th Dynasty in the tomb of the high-ranking civil officer Pabasa in
Thebes (26th Dynasty, around 700 BCE) shows peasants lifting a beehive. In the
Greek period of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, papyrus fragments mention it is
necessary to change the position of beehives twice a year so that bees can
forage in favourable areas with plenty of flowers. The Greek papyri of Zenon,
the manager of the estates of the diocetus
(minister of the economy) Apollonios in the 3rd century BCE tells us about
economic management and honey production, transport, storage and uses.
According to some of the medical papyri (among
them, the Ebers papyrus), honey was utilised in various compositions as a
softener or an adjuvant and it was also an ingredient in cosmetics. Honey and
wax were likewise indispensable in mummifying processes.
In mythology and religion, the bee was associated with the goddess Neith of the city of Sais in the Western Nile Delta, one of the creation goddesses (also a divinity of the hunt and of war). Some inscriptions also refer to Rê, God of the sun, whose tears, when they fell to earth, were transformed into bees, who created wax.
Catherine Chadefaud French agrégée in History Doctorate in Egyptology and Historical Geography (ancient Egyptian climate and vegetation)
Copyright notice: Editor and contributors have made every effort to identify copyright-holders of free-access online material. We apologize for any errors or omissions and would be grateful to be notified of any corrections
Honey was highly important in the Middle Ages. Cane sugar was known in Antiquity, but it was rare until the 17th century, so honey was used in food and drinks, as well as in medical treatments. Remember, too, that wax was needed for civil and religious lighting. We have evidence of all this from medieval texts such as agricultural treatises, encyclopaedias, fable-books and even religious texts, as well as the illustrations in them. They show us a great diversity of beehives in medieval times and deep interest in the insects’ lives.
seem to have been three periods according to the shape and function of
beehives. The first has fixed honeycombs – the bees attach their combs to an
immobile upper wall and this is the only kind used in the Middle Ages. The
second type has movable components added to the upper part of beehives with
fixed combs and it is only subsequently that we see hives with movable frames
appear. Still, the beehives we see in illustrations have a wealth of shapes and
materials that highlight regional diversity and personized craftsmanship, since
peasants made their beehives from their own local resources.
Trunk or box beehives
used in Gaul, tree trunk beehives are fairly rare in medieval images, although
a few appear in Italian illuminated manuscripts, while their widespread use is
attested to in texts from southern France and in Spain. This kind of beehive is
the closest to what bees do naturally, when they set up home in hollow trees.
Medieval written sources tell us that people often harvested a wild forest swarm by cutting out
part of the tree trunk and bringing it back as a beehive. In that case, the
trunk was cut out half-way down to provide a flight entrance.
Of course, there are other cylindrical beehives, always Italian and made of wooden slats or boards side-by-side. On the other hand, although we have much evidence in written sources from Provence, central and southern Italy, Spain and Portugal, of beehives made of a band of cylindrical cork oak off a tree trunk, we have no illustrations of these.
Parallel to trunk beehives, the box beehives so widespread in Greek and Roman Antiquity, seems to exist in nearly all Italian testimony, made of wide wooden boards, although we do not know what kind of wood – conifer, as Columella recommended because they resisted honeycomb moth.* Illustrations of light-coloured beehives might attest to this. Probably derived from a tree trunk laid out on the ground, these parallelepiped hives were always large, seeming to be about a meter long, even 1.5m, and about 1.30m wide. In most of these hives, flight holes were small, but there were many of them and they seem to be made of two movable partitions. Pliny mentioned “the cover should penetrate the hive, if the hive is too large or if the honey harvest is too small, for fear that the bees will be discouraged and not work well, then it can be made smaller, so that they are fooled about how much their work has progressed.
The beehives we see the most often in medievial illustrations are made of wickerwork woven wattle or split-wood. This kind of basketwork, which was used in Roman times, continued in Gaul and was widespread in the Middle Ages – we see it in illuminated manuscripts in England, northern France, Flanders or in the Rhineland, whereas we hardly find them in more southern manuscripts.
can see several types in these illustrations – some have a ribbed outside of
woven wattle over a framework, without any visible coating, so insulation from
heat and wet must have been poor. However, this woven surface was more frequently
covered with a brownish coating, which matches the written sources indicating
the use of cow pats, as in Antiquity, as the most common covering.
All this kind of beehives, usually about 50 cm in height, were woven over a wickerwork frame: a barked branch was split into several bundles for the vertical stays the wattles were woven around, usually with 8 to 12 ribs and sometimes these ran down to the bottom to make short feet, unless the bottom had a loop around it for the flight hole. The often golden colour of the wattlework does not enable us to see if they were made of oak, hazel, osier or clematis, as suggested by the texts.
beehives came in many shapes, some of them like a small dome with a flattened
top, others conical with a narrow top like a sugarloaf. It is rarer to see a
trunk-shaped hive with a flat top or a bell shape. Most of these hives had a
handle formed by the end of the branch under the woven framework, which made it
easier to carry and to attach the winter covering of straw.
of these hives are illustrated without a flight hole, but most of them have a
small opening in the lower part where the basketwork is looser or in the wooden
hoop between the sides and the base in the form of a small arch or rectangle.
Only conic or bell-shaped baskets have a hole in the lower third in the form of
a narrow slit.
are less frequent than the basketwork hives, and most are found in manuscripts
from northern France or Flanders and entirely missing in southern, especially
Italian, documents. This is due to the fact that they are connected with
cereal-growing, especially rye in more northern areas.
kind of beehive is mainly made of eight to 10 rows of light-coloured straw
twisted into rolls. Depending on the source, this is mainly of well-dried rye
straw, the stems of which are far longer than those of other cereal grains, put
together in rows and linked up with vertical osier (water willow) ties
Straw hives are usually dome-shaped and fairly small, hardly over some 40 cm. They may be capped by a round or stick-like handle, but most of them have none, in contrast to the wattle hives. They usually have a flight hold at the base, a simple arch in the straw, and more rarely, a rectangular slot in the lower third.
Written and ethnographic testimony tells us that these basketwork or straw beehives had a central cross to hold the swarm at the beginning of the comb construction and they could be open at the bottom for work on the colony.
This diversity of medieval beehives shows us the privileged relationship of human and bee at all times, even if the Middle Ages especially prized beehive products in the domestic economy. This is confirmed in the 14th and 15th centuries by permission for Royal, religious or secular lordly appointment of a bigre, a specialized forestry expert responsible for capturing, for his lordly masters, wild swarms of bees and putting them into productive beehives.
Author: Perrine Mane, Emerita Director of Studies, CNRS (CRH-EHESS) Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, translated and edited by Cozette Griffin-Kremer